Architecture, Range, Transmissions and many more.
Building an Architecture means by considering your requirements building a blueprint that’s the general expectation however IoT was not “designed”, it just “Happened”. In the past Engineers from different organizations with different requirements adapted multiple sensor type, multiple protocols as a result of this IoT architecture is a bit complex
While designing IoT Architecture generally following challenges are faced.
There are lot of Architectural models because IoT architecture is application specific. IoT architecture may differ with different requirements. But in this blog we are going to take a quick look of two important architectures as follows.
There are some common characteristics of every IoT architecture model i.e. every model is built on layer. There layers are usually independent. Each layer can use multiple protocols. Some protocols can be appeared at several layers also. In every IoT model in the end we need to connect sensors to a network and communicate with the applications. By using these common properties we can derive a simplified model for IoT Architectures. In most of the IoT architecture you can see that device layer, network layer, application layer is present.
In the most of the architectural models the data management has been parallelly done with layer-to-layer communication. At the sensors layers some kind of data processing can be done we can call it mist layer or edge layer. We can have cloud to whole manage data at application layer. At network layer we have fog layer to manage some intermediate data. These IoT functional layers and database layers works parallelly. We can see these two parallel domains of three layers almost everywhere. And at the same time with these two domains security is everywhere. If you consider this simplified model you can observe every IoT model and understand it very easily.
IoT communication model is based on standard IT communication model with some modifications. IoT communication model is a bit more complex than standard IT model. In standard IT model endpoints i.e., laptops, tablets connect with data center or cloud by using network where some kind of application might be running. IT connectivity architecture is a three-layer connectivity architecture.
The IoT connectivity model which based on standard IT connectivity model is of four layers. The first layer is of devices i.e. sensors or smart devices. But the second layer is fog layer which is before network layer. The third layer is of Network Layer. In huge IoT networks we can’t use IPV4 we have to use IPV6 there as there are millions of devices connected to each other and to the network. The last layer is of data center or cloud. The IoT communication model based upon IT communication model is shown in following image.
Sensors characteristics: They are based upon IoT requirements. In the past some IoT requirements used existing protocols while as others created different protocols as per their IoT needs. So, there are various type of protocols we use in IoT. We need protocols for transfer information from sensors to the application. So, it is important to choose right protocols based upon your IoT requirements. For example if you have powered your sensor by using cable then there are no limitations on you how much you are sending and how often you are sending. But if you have powered your sensor by using battery then there are limitations on how much data you are sending and how often you are sending. If you are sending data often and you are sending more data so it will drain your battery early. Depending upon these things you need to choose your protocols wisely.
Mobility: If you have powered your device by using cable then it is not going to be mobile. If you have not powered your sensors by using cable then it is mobile i.e. it can be connected to an object which as a power source not far from sensors. If your device doesn’t have power source nearby then you need to decide how much power your device is going to consume and for how much time it is going to send information. Mobility means power and it also means. If you want to transmit data over miles then it will consume more power.
Low and High Reporting Frequency: It means you need to send the data how often i.e., thousands of times per second or once in a month or once in a day etc.
Simple or Rich Data: Less power is required to transmit simple data with one parameter where as more power is required to transmit complex data with thousands of parameters.
Transmission Range: It means how long you want to transmit data. If you want to transmit data over miles then you need robust technology for that. Longer distance travel means more chances to lose data. You must take this point in account while creating a IoT application.
Density Per Call: if we are using few devices then there are less chances of collision of data but if there are huge number of devices in the network then more chances of data collision.
There are different technologies available to transmit the data. Every technology differs in terms of range of transmission. The following technologies are used to transmit over 0 to 5km
WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network consists of technologies like Bluetooth, MI WI, ANT+
WHAN: Wireless Home Area Network consists of ZigBee, Z-Wave, Thread and many more technologies.
WFAN: Wireless Field Area Network consists of Wireless Hart, ISA 100.11a
WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network consists of technologies like 802.11a/b/g, 802.11ah, 802.11p etc.
WNAN: Wireless Neighborhood Area Network it consists of Wi-Sun, ZigBee NAN and many other technologies.
WWAN: Wireless Wide Area Network consists of Cellular like WCDMA, WiMAX and licenced 3G, 4G services.
LPWA: Low Power Wide Area consists of SIGFOX, LoRA, Telensa, Onramp, Positive Train Control and many other technologies. It has longer range but due to low power we can’t send much data.
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